Ushahidi: Inteligencia colectiva en tiempos de crisis (y de coronavirus)

Después de dos años sin escribir nada (fundamentalmente por falta de tiempo) aprovecho este tiempo de confinamiento para retomar un poco el blog. No es que tenga más tiempo (aunque parezca mentira), pero me siento interpelado por ver como lo que investigo tiene su reflejo en la realidad (eso es esperanzador).

Durante estos años he seguido investigando sobre el crowdsourcing y la inteligencia colectiva. De hecho, hace poco me han aceptado un artículo en the European Journal of Criminology que en breve empezaré a desmenuzar aquí en el blog. Resulta que ese artículo habla de como los ciudadanos, ONGs, etc. se pueden organizar para dar respuestas a situaciones de elevada criminalidad, situaciones de emergencia, de problemas sociales en barrios, etc… sin contar con organismos gubernamentales en su elaboración. Esto no quiere decir que renuncien a estos organismos. De hecho muchas de esas iniciativas alcanzan su máxima eficacia al apoyar y servir de fuente de información a la labor de las Fuerzas y Cuerpos de Seguridad del Estado. Simplemente es algo que surge de la gente.

Uno de los ejemplos de organización ciudadana más representativos, son aquellos llevas a cabo mediante la plataforma de Ushahidi. Fundamentalmente, Ushahidi permite implementar un mapa colaborativo mediante el cual se pueden insertar diferentes tipos de avisos. Obviamente, estos avisos están geolocalizados.

Ushahidi se ha utilizado fundamentalmente en dos situaciones: en momentos de desastres naturales (como el que vivimos actualmente) y como respuesta civil en determinados eventos/situaciones políticas (p. ej.: votaciones con posibilidad de fraude electoral). En el primer caso, la propia situación mueve a la gente a participar. En el segundo caso, la participación depende más de la movilización de la comunidad por parte de grupos civiles, etc.

Estos mapas son muy útiles en casos de desastres naturales (incluida la pandemia que nos ocupa) por dos motivos: 1) permiten a la sociedad civil organizarse y servir de apoyo a la comunidad y 2) permiten a los organismos gubernamentales obtener información de forma rápida para una respuesta más efectiva y coordinada.

En el caso de la pandemia del Covid19, ha aparecido en España la iniciativa FrenaLaCurva y su versión en Ushahidi. Esta iniciativa permite mediante geolocalización tanto demandar ayuda como ofrecerla. FrenaLaCurva se circunscribe a España, pero ya están surgiendo diferentes iniciativas usando Ushahidi en otros países con el mismo fin: Italia, Francia, Kenia, etc.

En total, desde el 19 de marzo (hace 22 días), se han publicado un total de 8457 publicaciones. La gran mayoría tiene que ver con el ofrecimiento de ayuda: desde ir a hacer la compra, pasando por tirar la basura, hasta llamar por teléfono para hablar un rato… aunque solo 122 tienen que ver con algún tipo de demanda de ayuda.

En la sección de actividad se puede acceder a un panel de control que permite visualizar los datos de diferentes formas, agrupándolos por tipologías, necesidades concretas, etc.

El mapa se puede acceder desde:

  • Crowdglobe (2012): Mapping the Maps. A Meta-Level Analysis of Ushahidi & Crowdmap, Washington DC: Internews
  • Livingston, S. (2013). Africa’s Information Revolution: Implications for Crime, Policing, and Citizen Security. DTIC Document.
  • Meissen, U., & Fuchs-Kittowski, F. (2014, May). Towards a reference architecture of crowdsourcing integration in early warning systems. In ISCRAM.


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